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Bannerstones are found in shell mound contexts along major rivers in the midwestern United States; on the surface, rarely in archaeological context; and in burial contexts, and may be included in the burials of men, women or children.  Differing patterns in design are used contemporary with one another, with most patterns showing long life spans.  At least two functions are envisioned for bannerstones:  1.     Counter weights for the throwing stick (atlatl), as proposed by Webb and Haag, 1939.2.     Ceremonial in nature, indicating status and/or clan or tribal affiliation, as proposed by Lutz, 2000 and Moorehead, 1905.