Finding Aid: Oklahoma Native American Photographs Collection

Institution: Thomas Gilcrease Library and Archive
Language of Material: Primarily English with occasional names in their native language.
Description: 1,627 items
Period covered: 1850s - 1950s
Subject matter: There are 1,627 Oklahoma affiliated Native American Photographs in the Thomas Gilcrease Library and Archive. The photographs have been acquired continuously since the museum’s opening in 1949 and have developed into a significant independent collection over the years. These unique photographs provide a glimpse into tribal life and customs after removal into Indian Territory, now Oklahoma, and visually illustrate the process of adaptation to European customs juxtaposed with attempts to retain unique cultural identities. Prominent individuals with ties to Oklahoma history featured in this collection include Cherokee Chief John Ross (and family), Principal Chief during the Removal Period and after (1820 – 1866); Choctaw Chief Peter Pitchlynn (and family), Choctaw political leader from 1830 through election as Principal Chief (1864 – 1866) and after; and the important Creek Artist Acee Blue Eagle, to name a few. See all of the Oklahoma Native American photographs. 

Background: Staff, interns, and volunteers of the Thomas Gilcrease Library and Archive have contributed to the organization and maintenance of the files since the collection passed to the City of Tulsa in the 1950s. The Gilcrease Foundation acquired these materials before 1964 and is housed in the Helmerich Center for American Research (HCAR). The library currently receives most materials through community donation, board members, artists and the acquisition of manuscript collections.

Extent: 12 Linear feet

Processing Information Note: Over time the sub-collection of Oklahoma Native American Photographs has grown in importance and was organized by staff according to tribal affiliation. Cataloguing and creation of the finding aid of the Gilcrease Museum's collection of Oklahoma Native American photographs were made possible by the Oklahoma Historical Records Advisory Board, funded by the National Historical Publications & Records Commission, a statutory body affiliated with the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). The grant funded project was completed in 2017 in order to improve the visibility, accessibility, growth and conservation of the collection.

Restrictions: Please, contact the Rights and Reproduction Department for information on publishing or reproducing materials included in these records. Permission will be granted by the Gilcrease Museum as the owner of the physical materials, and does not imply permission from the copyright holder. It is the responsibility of the researcher to obtain all necessary permissions from the copyright holder.
http://gilcrease.utulsa.edu/Visit/During-Your-Visit/Policies/Reproduction-Policy

Availability: This collection is open for use by appointment only at the Helmerich Center for American Research (HCAR). Contact the Library at 918-631-6441 or renee-harvey@utulsa.edu in advance to inquire if materials exist pertaining to your research interests. 

Arrangement Title Description Date
Apache, (not assigned) Romeo and Juliet

Black and white photograph of Apache "Romeo and Juliet". Boy and girl embracing in studio setting. Boy wearing loincloth, bare-chested. Girl wearing blanket wrapped around waist, bare-chested. European-style background.Folder 7

1850 - 1900
Apache, Folder 1 Geronimo

3 copies of this photograph exist in the Gilcrease Photograph Collection
Folder 1

1850 - 1900
Apache, Folder 2 Fox Tamer

2 copies of this photograph exist in the Gilcrease Photograph Collection
Folder 2

1850 - 1900
Apache, Folder 3 Geronimo

5 copies of this photograph exist in the Gilcrease Photograph Collection
Folder 3

1850 - 1900
Geronimo

5 copies of this photograph exist in the Gilcrease Photograph Collection
Folder 3

1850 - 1900
Geronimo, Chiricahua Apache

3 copies of this photograph exist in the Gilcrease Photograph Collection
Folder 3

1850 - 1900
Geronimo and Family

Black and white photograph of Geronimo and his family. Family is Geronimo, his wife, and three children. They are standing in a field with corn stalks on the left, beside Geronimo's wife.
Folder 3

1850 - 1900
Geronimo at Fort Sill

3 copies of this photograph exist in the Gilcrease Photograph Collection
Folder 3

circa 1903
Nahehe and Geronimo

Black and white portrait photograph of Geronimo and Nahehe. Men are standing on rock wall with men and horses in the background. Geronimo is on right.
Folder 3

1850 - 1900
Geronimo, Apache Chief

Black and white portrait photograph of Geronimo wearing a scarf.
Folder 3

1850 - 1900
Geronimo

Black and white portait photograph of Geronimo. Kneeling on right knee, holding a rifle across his body and pointed upwards.
Folder 3

1886
Geronimo and Nachete after their capture

Black and white photograph of Geronimo and Nachete after capture with 18 other Native Americans and train in the background. Written on back, "Geronimo and Nachete after their capture at Camp Bowie.
Folder 3

September 10, 1886
Geronimo and Nachete

Black and white photograph of Geronimo with 3 men, one holding a baby. Geronimo is on horseback on the left. Written on back, "Geronimo and Nachete", "more properly Nahche". Stamp, "National Archives, Photographic Records Office".
Folder 3

1850 - 1900
Geronimo

Folder 3

1850 - 1900
Geronimo, Chief of the Arizona Apaches

Black and white portrait photograph of Geronimo. Leaning left against tree.
Folder 3

1850 - 1900
Geronimo, et al.

Black and white photograph of Geronimo, et al. Caption on photograph, "No. 171 - Geronimo and Natches mounted, Natches with hat on; son of Geronimo standing by his side". Typed caption reads: "Left to Right: Geronimo and Natches mounted, Natches with hat on; son of Geronimo standing by his side (White Horse holding Nahi's baby girl; Geronimo; Chief Naiche; and Fun, considered the bravest fighter of Geronimo's band. 1886) Photograph by Camillus S. Fly, courtesy of Smithsonian Institution. From Photography of the Old West Text by Karen Current, Photographs selected & printed by William R. Current. Published by Harry N. Abrams, Inc."
Folder 3

1886
Apache, Folder 4 An Apache man

Black and white photograph of an Apach man. Messy, cropped hair. Bare-chested. Written in ink on cardstock below photo, "An Apache man". Stamped below text, "F. A. Hartwell, Pheonix, A. T."
Folder 4

1850 - 1900
Possibly Old Nanna

Sepia-colored photograph of Old Nanna, Apache Chief. Man is seated in studio setting among desert plants wearing hat, Anglo jacket, vest, and shirt, loincloth and leggings, moccasins, and holding stick in right hand. Logo below photo on cardstock, "E.B."
Folder 4

1850 - 1900
Chief Mountain

Black and white photograph postcard of Chief Mountain, Apache. Standing outdoors, facing left wearing fur-wrapped braids, buckskin jacket, leggs, moccasins, carrying beaded pipebag and pipe in left hand. "Chief Mountain (Apache) written on reverse".
Folder 4

1850 - 1900
Apache Braves, possibly featuring Geronimo

Black and white photograph of five Apache braves. Geronimo is seated at far left holding hat at chest. Men are all wearing Anglo-attire, including military jackets. Man seated on far right holds rifle. Man seated in center holds bow.
Folder 4

1850 - 1900
Ta-ho, Apache Chief

Black and white portrait photograph of Ta-ho, Apache Chief. Wearing cavalry hat with plumes, military dress of high-ranking officer, large cross at neck, blanket at waist, and holding tomahawk in left hand at waist.
Folder 4

1850 - 1900
Hattie Tom, Chiricahua Apache

Color portrait photographic painting of Hattie Tim, Chiricahua Apache. Woman is seated in studio setting wearing green beaded traditional dress, several long beaded necklaces and chokers, earrings, and face has two red dots on cheeks (one on each).
Folder 4

1899
Brushing Against

Color reproduction portait of Brushing Against, an Apache woman. She is pictured against gray background with short hair, colorful striped traditional blouse, with beaded necklaces, mirrored necklaces, and a white collar around her throat.
Folder 4

1898
Geronimo's farewell to Arizona, Fort Bowie, Arizona

Black and white photograph of Geronimo's farewell to Arizona. He is in center of photo standing on low stone wall with crowd, horses, buildings, and hills behind him. On left side of photo is a porch extended from a building with men standing facing Geronimo.
Folder 4

1850 - 1900
Typical Apache Indian huts at the San Carlos Agency, Arizona

Black and white photograph of typical Apache Indian huts. Two grass huts pictured, one with entrance shown. Outside entrance are two figures crouched to ground.
Folder 4

1895
Winter Range for Apache Cattle, near Fort Sill

Black and white photograph of range for Apache cattle. View overlooks small hills and plains, much is covered by trees. White text on photo at bottom center reads, "A view from Signal Mountain looking North eat. In the ---- Mountains near Ft. Sill".
Folder 4

1850 - 1900
Apache Cattle

Black and white photograph of Apache cattle on plains. Herd in center of photo. Photo taken from hill slightly above cattle herd. Written in ink below photo, "Apache cattle 1897".
Folder 4

1897
Old Nanna, famous Apache Chief

Black and white photograph of Old Nanna, famous Apache Chief. Man is seated in studio setting among desert plants wearing hat, Anglo jacket, vest, and shirt, loincloth and leggings, moccasins, and holding stick in right hand.
Folder 4

1850 - 1900
Apache Braves

Black and white photograph of two Apache braves. Men standing in studio setting resting against fur-covered studio prop in center. Man on left wearing single feather at back of head, cotton shirts, neckerchief. Man on right wearing patterned cotton shirt.
Folder 4

1850 - 1900
Chief Josh, San Carlos Apache

Color painting reproduction of Chief Josh, San Carlos Apache. Man is pictured with brown background wearing white, wide-brimmed hat, blue vest with three medals, beaded necklaces, white shirt, and hair around shoulders. "Chief Josh - San Carlos Apache".
Folder 4

1898
An Apache Indian of Geronimo's Band

Black and white photograph of Apache Indian of Geronimo's band. Man is standing on hill facing right with one leg propped on hill. Wearing full feathered headdress, kerchief, buckskin jacket and leggings. Child crouched in front of man with fur cap.
Folder 4

1850 - 1900
Go-Shono, Apache Medicine man

Color portrait photograph advertisement of Go-Shono, Apache Medicine Man. Man is pictured wearing colorful turban with single feather, bare-chested, single beaded necklace, and feathered shield. Advertisement for Tongaline Medicine.
Folder 4

1905
Apache women in their best dress

Sepia-colored photograph of two Apache women in their best dress. Women standing in studio setting with hands resting on tree limb in front of them. Woman on left wearing patterned blouse and plaid skirt with beaded choker necklaces and dotted markings.
Folder 4

1850 - 1900
Apache, Folder 5 Little Old Boy

Man pictured in studio setting standing on hay wearing hair down with long beaded leather extension from top of head, wrapped in possibly wolf hide and plaid blanket, and moccasins. Photographic reproduction of original.
Folder 5

1850 - 1900
Apache, Folder 6 Mescalera Apache Medicine man

Black and white photograph of a Mescalera Apache Medicine Man. Man is standing in studio setting with bearskin over left shoulder, holding head of bear. Also wearing cotton shirt, vest, cloth around waist, leggings, and moccasins. Photographic reproduction of original.
Folder 6

1850 - 1900
Apache, Folder 7 Unidentified Apache man

Black and white photograph of an unidentified Apache man in studio setting. Wearing traditional blanket wrapped around body except chest and right arm. Wearing cotton shirt, vest, medal, and tie at neck. Holding spear in right hand and shield in left.
Folder 7

1850 - 1900
Apache Camp

Black and white photograph of Apache camp. Shows three grass huts with family in front of one at far right. Boy standing in front of space between two huts wearing traditional shirt, vest, Anglo-style pants. Gourds, basket, and pail in foreground.
Folder 7

1850 - 1900
Apache Camp

Black and white photograph of an old Mescalero Apache woman in studio setting. Hair cropped, wrapped in drab blanket, high-top moccasins, seated on blanket-covered studio prop. Photographic reproduction of original which was framed by cardstock.
Folder 7

1850 - 1900
Mescalero Belle

Black and white portrait photograph of Mescalero Belle. Standing in studio setting with right foot propped on blanket-covered studio prop. Holding traditional blanket around back and over head, wearing earrings, beaded necklaces, and a cotton shirt.
Folder 7

1850 - 1900
Mescalero Chiefs

Black and white photograph of Mescalero chiefs. Two rows of men outdoors, almost all holding rifles. One row standing, the row below crouched in same position as if firing rifle. Almost all in mixture of traditional wear and Anglo attire.
Folder 7

1850 - 1900
Unidentified Apache man

Black and white portrait photograph of an unidentified Apache man standing in studio setting. Wearing cotton shirt, vest, buffalo hide over left shoulder and holding bears head at chest-level, leggings, and high-top moccasins.
Folder 7

1850 - 1900
Unidentified Apache man with Bow

Black and white portrait photograph of an unidentified Apache man in studio setting. Standing on hay wearing fur cap, beaded chokers and necklaces, cotton shirt with armbands, blanket around waist, fur embellishments at waist, leggings, and moccasins.
Folder 7

1850 - 1900
Mescalero Belle

Black and white portrait photograph of Mescalero Belle, standing in studio setting. Facing right so profile is viewed. Wearing traditional buckskin dress, holding basket in front (left) hand. Photographic reproduction of original.
Folder 7

1850 - 1900
Apache mother and babies

Black and white photograph of an Apache mother and her two babies. Taken in studio setting. Woman is seated on studio prop with hair down wearing cotton shirts and pants, and moccasins. Holding naked baby on lap. Older child to left of mother.
Folder 7

1850 - 1900
Mescalero Camp

Black and white photograph of Mescalero camp. Four white tepees with hills in background. Saddled horse to left of tepees. Photographic reproduction of original; "Mescalero camp" written on cardstock of original below photo.
Folder 7

1850 - 1900
Pacer's Camp, Apache

Black and white photograph of Pacer's (Apache) camp. Show two tepees with two adult individuals in front of them and one child in doorway of center tepee. Trees and hills in background.
Folder 7

1850 - 1900
Apache, Folder 8 Apache, possibly featuring Surrhoreo

4 copies of this photograph exist in the Gilcrease Photograph Collection
Folder 8

1850 - 1900
Apache, Folder 9 Nantziti, war chief, Apache

Black and white portrait photograph of Nantziti, Apache war chief. Standing studio setting Wearing traditional buckskin shirts, beaded necklace, plaid cloth around waist, leggings, and moccasins. Holding spear and shield in left hand. Bearskin on floor.
Folder 9

1850 - 1900
Domingo, Mescalero Apache

Black and white portrait photograph of Domingo, a Mescalero Apache. Standing in studio setting wearing military jacket with medals, gun belt with bullets and gun holster, traditional beaded leggings, and moccasins. Holding revolver in right hand.
Folder 9

1850 - 1900
Apache, Folder 10 Paso (or Pacer)

Black and white portrait photograph of Paso (or Pacer), Apache Chief. Seated in studio setting facing one-quarter towards proper right. Wearing single feather in hair, one fur-wrapped braid, trade blanket over right should, earrings, and a wool shirt.
Folder 10

1850 - 1900